During his lifetime, John was a scholar, teacher, priest, bishop, chancellor, and martyr. He is most known for his conflicts with King Henry VIII, who made plans to divorce his wife, Catherine. John was close to Catherine and gave her advice, speaking out strongly against the divorce. He faithfully believed that marriage is a sacrament, which is holy and cannot be dissolved. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the king’s marriage, the king took matters into his own hands. Henry made himself head of the Church in England and declared his marriage annulled. However, John stood with the Church and refused to acknowledge these actions as legitimate. By order of the king, John was promptly sent to the Tower of London and condemned to death. He was beheaded on June 22, 1535. John was friends with Thomas More, who was martyred the same year for also refusing to acknowledge the king’s divorce. The two saints were canonized together just 400 years later by Pope Pius XI.